The Otomi from the Olmec Toltec Teotihuacan Nation was established over a vast area comprising most of Mesoamerica, with different geography changes caused by the subsequent presence of other people. This ancient nation had at the time of the Spanish invasion, the following territory;
a) Nzuhni Valley (Toluca); b) Madenxi Province (Xilotepec); c) Mamehni (Tula); d) Sierra de las Cruces (Kuauhtlalpan), e) Texcoco, Tlacopan (Tacuba), Atlakuiuayan (Tacubaya), Koyoakan, Axochko (Ajusco), and Teocalhueyakan (Tlalnepantla); f) ‘World (Mexico); g) Valley North ‘world (Mexico); h) Teotlalpan; I) ‘Batha’ Bot’ähi (Valle del Mezquital); j) Metztitlan; k) The Huaxteka; l) Sierra de Puebla; m) Akolhuacan; n) Tlaxkallan; ñ) ‘Batha Puebla; o) Michoakan; p) Kouixko; q) Guanajuato, r) Kolima, and s) Kuliakan.
The nation Natho nahnu ñuhmu ‘ñuhu (Otomi), is the oldest of Nxihmhöi (our Continent) people. They have the old sages, guardians of oral history, the Otomi life back to a past that is lost in the mists of time. It is the first humanity, the mother culture, the Otomi and the Olmecs are the same, of who eventually groups that would form the people with linguistic trunks Otopamean, Mixtec, popoloca, Amuzga, Zapotec, Chinantec and chiapaneca-mangue came off. The Otomi people gave origin to other civilizations as the Mazahua, Tlatilca, Toltec, Teotihuacan, cuiccuilca, Chichimeca, Pame, matlatzinca, Triqui and tlahuica.
Otomi or Teocintle Mfuhthä discovered more than 30,000 years ago; were the first discoverers of Tsibi (fire) and Tihta (bathhouse). Were the inventors of medepa or account of time (calendar); They had communication with other people and beings elsewhere in the universe. They used various forms and types of energy. They developed the art, science, literature and education. Its development was great. They built houses sacred or ceremonial centers called Mähki Dänguu; the traces of this civilization are these ancient cities.
One of the main heroes of the Otomi nation was’ Botzanga, who ruled the city-state of Ndongu (Xikipilco), a young warrior who led his people with wisdom and defended the sovereignty, territory and Otomi autodeteminación against the Mexican military expansion .
Age of Conquest:
The Otomi nation occupied during the European invasion, a larger area that they now occupy. Otomi were at that moment, in a period of expansion. The most important towns founded at that time by the Otomi under Spanish subjugation were: Queretaro, San Juan del Rio, Toliman, San Miguel Allende, Tierra Blanca, Santa Maria del Rio and San Luis de la Paz.
During the seventeenth century, the need to provide security for cargo trucks carrying mine products, led the expañoles to try to control the nomads Otomi through the founding of Misiones. But the bands that were not subject constnatemente attacked the new settlements, maintaining a state of war étnicon.
These continuing hostilities and the lack of a regular agriculture originated to alzammiento among the Otomi who were newly established.
During the eighteenth century, the interests of cattle ranches joined the interests of the mining industry, giving the policy of submission of a purely military character. Turning, then, economic hand control of the Spaniards to the Creoles.
Otomi who helped significantly in colonization, such as those recently had become sedentary, were relegated to a lower position, dispossessing their land to favor the landowners of the Cologne and forced to work in mines, such as Guanajuato.
Many missions were destroyed and the Otomi persecuted, despite the efforts of missionaries and instead established military garrisons. Otomi territories that until then had been exclusively or predominantly own, were filled by an increasing number of Creoles and mestizos.
Disgruntled Otomi participated in the war for independence, with the call of Father Hidalgo (who dominated the Otomi and taught to read the natives of Dolores), thousands of Otomi joined the liberation struggle. Otomi participated in the taking of the Alhóndiga against the Spaniards, as the brave and resourceful mining nicknamed the Pípila, who a slab at the back tied and protected against enemy çbalas, could acercarce to the door of the Alhóndiga and set it on fire; and satisfy the hunger of their villages with corn and almento the rich hoarded.
In the Battle of Monte de las Cruces, when Hidalgo entered the Valley of Toluca with his army of 80,000 men, mostly composed of Otomi of Guanajuato, Queretaro, Hidalgo, Michoacan and Mexico State, including Mazahua and Purépecha, who rose in arms; who won the royalists. But the consummation of independence, the living conditions of the Otomi was more miserable, besides thousands of them lost their lives in this social movement.
In this quest, Temoaya is mentioned in relation to progress together Insurgentes, where hundreds of Otomi of this place- to the Mount of Crosses against the royalists. Camacho journalist Escamilla among its anecdotes, that passing the General Aldama Temoaya was joined by many Otomi Indians, which deeply touched and surprised the young General, by adherence showing locals “.
With the independence movement it changed the political situation of the new Mexican national state, but actually worsened the position of Otomi, accentuating the differences and consolidating the “reasonable people” to stand against the natives.
In the nineteenth century, the Otomi who had remained more or less nomadic or constantly rebveldes and who had escaped extermination, quickly adopted the crossbred techniques in agriculture and assimilated mestizo culture, losing their distinctive characteristics lot.
In the central area, the Otomi withdrew from the cities forming sometimes neighborhoods on the periphery. The invasion of mestizos to the Otomi lands caused some of them invaded the lands of the Sierra Gorda pames.
revolutionary and post-revolutionary era:
During the Diaz regime, the situation of many Otomi became more critical, such as the Lerma River, where the estates exploited their workforces, There were haciendas like La Gavia, the Hacienda de Buenavista, owned by Miguel Icaza ; Hacienda Pathe who came to serr owned by Pordirio Diaz, son; Tlachaloya Rancho de Pascual Cejudo, the Rancho de San Antonio de José María Alvarez and Hacienda San Jose Comalco Dona Guadalupe Madrid.
These lands that had been ancestrally owners Otomi, were relegated to work as laborers or farmhands acasillados where women were humiliated by the master or patrón.Los Otomi lived in villages, neighborhoods, villages and principally relegated to mountainous areas; They played so only the most modest tasks but also cultivated the land as sharecroppers, having obligation to provide services to the landowners.
Before 1910, the Otomi of Temoaya lived in very difficult economic conditions so it was relatively easy to be incorporated into the fight armada.El dictator Diaz pursued the Otomi through landowners and caciques and rancheros, so the revolutionary movement drives the Otomi take up arms again and fight alongside Emiliano Zapata. Thousands of Otomi died to achieve land and freedom.
After the revolution, the Otomi began searching colonial documents and began to manage the restitution of their lands; lots or refunds obtained as ejidos. While communications and rural education were increased, the movement toward “national culture, which had begun in the previous century” intensified. Today, all the peoples of the Otomi family present, at first glance, a homogeneous and similar to the Indian peoples of central Mexico aspectio.
Along the Indian National Movement, the Movement Contemporary Otomi appears in 1975 with the establishment of the Supreme Council Otomi, who assists with the Mazahua, Matlatzinca and Tlahuica Tips to First National Congress of Indigenous Peoples held in the same year. On October 13, 1977, the Otomi people involved in the signing of the “Pact Matlatzinca Valley”, in a ceremony held at the Faculty of Humanities UAEM., Agreeing with Mazahua, Matlatzinca and tlahuicas, to unite their efforts in the liberation struggle:
“2.- self-determination and self-management of our ethnic groups within the context of the Mexican nation;
5. On the one based on the collectivization of production economy, which is tradition in our groups, so that the land benefits everyone, as the sun’s heat;
6. For the actual application of justice, to eradicate the vestiges of colonial and neocolonial destroying the social life of our peoples;
7. For the return and respect of the lands that belong to us from thousands of years ago;
8. For the defense of our ceremonial centers, symbols of our identity;
19. The policy of the various municipalities and the indigenous peoples determined the Indians themselves;
20. For the official Indian policy ceases to be patronizing, impositoria, verbalisa and burocratizante. We want an Indian policy made by indigenous and put into action by them;
25. Strengthen our historical consciousness, the awareness of our social, economic, political and cultural order and build our present and our future;
26. We endorse the struggle of the working class and all marginalized groups fighting acts of ethnocide and genocide occurring in ethnic groups.
The group Pact Valley Matlatzinca addressed the national society and the Mexican State, documents expounding his political thought and its historical demands, which are: 1) Indigenous and Political Reform in Mexico “, which was read 13 April 1978 at the monument to Cuahtemoca, in the city of Toluca, the one where the State is claimed by its policy of taxation, arbitrary way out programs or contrary patterns of life of indigenous peoples, demanding a reform of State that respects the organization, self-management, self-determination and din to authoritarian indigenous policy patrernalista and 2) the “Declaration of Temoaya” was signed on July 8, 1979 in Temoaya, in the heart of the Otomi region, and presented in that same month the Third National Congress of Indigenous Peoples, which raises fundamental points as the Multiethnic State, the requirement of political spaces, the conquest of power, an end to colonialism, bilingual education, historical recovery and land, among others ; and 3) “The Open Letter of Otomi People to the President of the Republic”, read by Apolinar de la Cruz Loreto, President of the Supreme Council Otomi against Jose Lopez Portillo, on 15 August 1980 at the Otomi Ceremonial Center, where the then president delivered this monumental work as the House and symbol of identity of the Otomi people.
In the latter document the constitutional recognition of Indigenous Peoples, end dessigualdad and discrimination is required and claims that the “Mexican society is multiethnic, pliricultural, but the state is still monocultural, not plural, since it seems to be a unique instrument the mestizam society that is built as dominant nation “.
Also the “Charter Abieta the Indians Brothers of America” appears, as the position of the Indian Peoples of Mexico State integrated into the Covenant Valley Matlatzinca Group, before the International Indian Movement, released before the full Congress Indian peoples of South America, held in Cuzco, Peru, in February 1980. This document presents the fundamentals of Indianness, the scope and meaning of its action, culture and EducAction, and Indian organization; and it states that “for more than 450 years have tried to destroy our society and our culture, to erase our memory, either by force of arms or superexploitation as assimilationist, integrationist, acculturation, etc. policies Tasted many ways of genocide and ethnocide, nevertheless not succeeded, nor will succeed, because our people are awakening from the long night of colonialism, recovering the word which denied us, recovering our history, reaffirming our identity. Now, more than ever, we must take care that word, do not let us steal governments and power groups that come to pose as liberators or progressive to disarm only to manipulate us better, because ultimately not see them anything seriously to break the colonial situation in we continue paying a high price in blood, suffering and humiliation … ”
The Otomi Pueblo is present in the struggle for their demands and rights at the local, state, national and international, as witness the above documents. Otomi movement represented in the Supreme Council Otomi get some achievements, especially in services infrastructure of communities and agricultural loans for the field; and perhaps the most significant is the building of the Otomi Ceremonial Center, where many Otomi communities are involved in management and construction. This coincides with the period of Jorge Jimenez Cantu. But come ups and downs since 1982 with the government of Alfredo del Mazo Gonzalez, lapsing the period of Alfredo Baranda Garcia and is not but seven Years later when the Otomi organization achieves regrouped to strengthen its liberation struggle and a new relationship between the People Otomi and the state.
They followed the governments of Mario Ramon Beteta its policy of ethnic development and continued by Ignacio Pichardo, delivered the Otomi Ceremonial Center in his term the federal government, to the detriment of the Otomi.
The policy of these governments including that of Emilio Chuayffet Chemor, Arturo Montiel Rojas, Enrique Peña Nieto and Eruviel Avila Villegas with their indigenism have promoted capitalist and neoliberal economy, as well as participatory integration of Indians within the same development model promoted by the state and the great capital. And the situation of marginalization, dispossession, domination, ecocide and genocide from the Mexican Government to the Otomi people and other indigenous peoples continues.